We believe that sharing knowledge and helping others in the e-mobility industry to innovate is the way forward – for all of us. Because by working together, we’ll get there quicker. So we decided to kick off this year with our new webinar series, Switch to Clarity, a place to share our expertise with you.
Welcome to episode two of our Switch to Clarity webinar series, What’s new in ISO 15118-20, where our Switch engineers André and Shalin joined me to shed light on the new features introduced with ISO 15118-20.
In this informative webinar, you also meet Plug & Charge specialist Steffen Rhinow from Hubject. Steffen discussed the implications of ISO 15118-20 on existing Plug & Charge implementations and told us more about their new Open Plug & Charge Protocol.
We dedicated the last 15 minutes of the webinar to questions.
Below, we’ve linked the questions to the timestamps in the video and elaborated our answers in more detail. If there are any other specific questions you would like us to answer, shoot me an email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
A: The short answer is no. There is no such list or database available. The good news is that we can give you some insights based on public announcements and insider industry news.
EV manufacturers have only recently started to announce their support of ISO 15118-2, released as an international standard back in 2014. The first time we heard of a car manufacturer’s plan to support Plug & Charge, one of the key drivers for adopting ISO 15118, was back in 2018. During Hubject’s Intercharge Network Conference (ICNC 20), they used a Smart Electric Drive to showcase this convenient feature. However, it seems that this proof of concept never made it into series production.
Porsche was the first to announce support for Plug & Charge for its series production cars back in August 2020. During Hubject’s ICNC 21 in September 2021, Hubject used a Porsche Taycan to demonstrate Plug & Charge at an Alpitronic HPC charging station.
Here’s a list of EV makes and models and associated news articles that support the fact that these vehicles already do or will support ISO 15118-2 with Plug & Charge. This is by no means an exhaustive list.
ISO 15118-20 FDIS (Final Draft International Standard) was recently published at the end of February. You can purchase it online at Beuth publishing house.
An FDIS is a technical feature freeze. This means that only editorial changes are possible between the FDIS and IS (International Standard). It's safe to start implementing the new standard based on this draft, and there will be no more technical changes. ISO 15118-20 is the underlying communication technology to enable bidirectional power transfer for AC and DC (Combined Charging System – CCS).
We don’t know exactly when EV manufacturers will pick up ISO 15118-20. What we do know is that bidirectional power flow, commonly referred to as V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid) seems to be the most anticipated feature. V2G has slightly different challenges than Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) or Vehicle-to-Building (V2B). Our best guess is that we’ll see the first EVs in the mass market with V2H / V2B / V2G support by 2024 –– and I believe VW, Renault, Hyundai and Sono Motors will be among them.
Robert Llewellyn’s Fully Charged video on a Vehicle-to-Grid project in Utrecht
Honda is also participating in V2X research projects, deploying 50 Honda e for the V2X Suisse project in Switzerland. As DC CCS chargers are part of the story, Honda must indeed have plans to adopt ISO 15118-20. Last but not least, Ford prominently launched its F-150 Lightning, an electrified version of the popular pick-up truck in the U.S. Here is an insightful video from the State of Charge YouTube channel that addresses 15 questions around Ford F-150 Lightning’s Intelligent Backup Power charger. Whether or not Ford uses an early version of ISO 15118-20 for their V2H charging technology is unclear.
Given that Ford already supports ISO 15118-2 with Plug & Charge in its Mach-E models at the Electrify America charging network, one can only assume that they already dug into an early version of the new ISO 15118-20 FDIS for the F-150 Lightning.
In summary on this question:
A: This very much depends on the existing hardware in place. To answer this question thoroughly, let’s look at what your EV and charger need to have in place to support both ISO 15118-2 and -20.
A: We'll be sharing an update on this in our pre-launch webinar on May 3rd. We'll be telling you more about our Josev Community edition. Sign up here to register.
A: It’s probably a good idea to briefly explain what these terms mean before I answer this question.
Vehicle-to-Load (V2L) allows your EV to act as an external power source to power several (low power) electrical devices like camping equipment or appliances. The EV would be equipped with an outlet different from a Type 1 / Type 2 (AC) or CCS outlet to connect your devices.
V2H / V2B
In a Vehicle-to-Home (V2H) or Vehicle-to-Building (V2B) scenario, the EV can power a home or an office building, for example, to not only reduce the energy bill but to reduce demand on the local grid. Here, we’re talking about a closed electric ecosystem, which is not the same as V2G (Vehicle-to-Grid), as the energy stored in the EV’s battery is not fed back into the electricity network (the grid).
With Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V), the idea is that one vehicle can power another vehicle, eg to help out a stranded EV that didn’t make it to the next charging station on time.
This is Vehicle-to-everything and is often used in the e-mobility industry as a collective term for V2H, V2B and V2G. ISO 15118-20 addresses explicitly the V2H / V2B and V2G scenarios. The protocol describes the necessary exchange of messages between an EV and a charging station connected to a home, office building or the grid. It’s not the right fit for V2L or V2V use cases.
A: ISO 15118 is a communication standard that specifies the “language” of the EV and charging station for exchanging the relevant information to charge the EV’s battery. In the case of ISO 15118-20, we now also have the means to use the EV as a power bank on wheels to feed energy back to a home, building or the grid whenever necessary. Where this charging or discharging process is happening is entirely independent of the protocol. This can be street, home, fleet, or workplace charging - the opportunities are limitless.
A: The ISO 15118 standard provides the means to transmit pricing information. It’s then up to the EV and charger manufacturer to make use of and visualise this information as they see fit. It’s very much a business decision; there’s no clear answer.
Putting myself in the shoes of an EV driver, I would expect the EV charger’s display to show me how much the charging process will cost before I start charging my EV. And inside the EV, I’d like to see a history of all charging sessions and the tariffs that applied, including the total costs.
As mentioned during the webinar, ISO 15118-20 provides an extensive set of pricing information using a data structure called “absolute pricing”. Absolute pricing means that both the charge point operator (CPO) and the mobility service provider (MSP, the company offering the electricity contract for your EV) can get quite sophisticated with their tariff structure. For example, they could set a session fee, a kWh-based energy fee, a peak power price, an overstay fee, and country-specific tax rules.
However, the current roaming protocols, such as OICP (Hubject’s Open InterCharge Protocol) and OCPI (Open Charge Point Interface) still need to catch up with that level of sophistication to enable CPOs and MSPs to exchange this rich pricing information.
A: There are means to extend or create a slightly proprietary version of ISO 15118-2 while still complying with the official specification. We explain this further in our ISO 15118 Basic training, organised by CharIN Academy. The short answer is that you’d have to use the “minor version” field in the Supported App Protocol (SAP) Request. The SAP Request is a message the EV sends to the charging station at the beginning of a charging session to agree on a mutually supported communication protocol.
If the charging station understands this “minor version”, which means a “minor deviation from the official standard”, it can properly process the added functionality. This way, you could, for example, add data fields to existing messages or create completely new messages using a different payload type. The payload type is an instruction for the receiving party (EV or charger) on how to interpret the incoming data. If the charger does not understand how to interpret the minor version, it would simply ignore anything that is not compliant with the official ISO 15118-2 standard.
That said, implementing a proprietary version that deviates from the official standard raises interoperability issues. This only works if you control the environment and can make sure that both EV and charging station understand any added functionality, like in a fleet charging scenario.
A: Great question. Here’s how best to describe how it would work
A: OSCP is a protocol developed by the Open Charge Alliance, and you can read more about it here. We have not yet heard of any live deployments of this OSCP protocol other than pilot implementations. We’ll certainly be tracking developments as they occur.
An e-book for beginners and experts alike. Reduces the steep learning curve of ISO 15118 by providing a comprehensive and easy-to-understand access to the Vehicle-to-Grid communication protocol. Written by our founder, one of the few co-authors of ISO 15118, this e-book has fast become standard literature in the industry.
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With OCPP 2.0.1 and the new device model concept, a station can automatically describe its full layout and capabilities to the cloud-based CSMS. This allows for plug-and-play installation of a charging station. It also lets the CSMS read and control any component remotely.
Sara stands for Station Analytics and Remote Administration
The Open Charge Alliance is the official body that specifies OCPP 2.0.1 and defines a set of certification profiles. Each profile tests a certain set of functionalities. Depending on the functionality of your charger or CSMS, you might want to certify for either a subset or all of these profiles.
Continuous Integration / Continuous Deployment (CI/CD)
Scotti stands for Simple Compliance Testing Tool for Interoperability.
Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) is a very compact representation of XML. All ISO 15118 messages are defined in XML. EXI improves serialisation and parsing speed on embedded devices (like an EV and a charging station controller) and allows more efficient use of memory and battery life, compared to standard (textual) XML.
The Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) is a lightweight, publish-subscribe network protocol that transports messages between devices.
A CSMS is a cloud-based management system operated by the company that is managing the charging stations. A charging station connects to a CSMS using OCPP (Open Charge Point Protocol).
Automated Connection Device (ACD), a conductive charging concept that doesn't require a person to plug in the charging cable. A first implementation is ACD-P, where 'P' stands for 'pantograph' charging of buses.
Power line communication, a communication technology that enables sending data over existing power cables.
Signal Level Attenuation Characterisation (SLAC) is based on power line communication (specifically HomePlug Green PHY) and is a protocol to establish the data link between the EV and the charging station via the charging cable.
Charge Point Operator, the entity monitoring and managing an EV charger network.